Palaeo After Dark (general)

In this episode the gang discusses two papers about how niche breadth can change as organisms grow, with one paper looking at modern organisms and the other focusing on extinct fossil taxa. Also, James is fascinated by New York's greatest "hero", Amanda becomes "enthusiastic" in her defense of a topic, and witness the dark middle chapter of the podcast as Curt "ruins everything". We also have an in-depth discussion on what can and cannot be classified as a pie.... it's one of those podcasts. Skip to 12 minutes in if you want to start learning about science.

References

Dick, Daniel G., Günter Schweigert, and Erin E. Maxwell. "Trophic niche ontogeny and palaeoecology of early Toarcian Stenopterygius (Reptilia: Ichthyosauria)." Palaeontology (2016).

Purwandana, Deni, et al. "Ecological allometries and niche use dynamics across Komodo dragon ontogeny." The Science of Nature 103.3-4 (2016): 1-11.

Direct download: Podcast_81_-_Niche_Ontogeny_The_Hero_This_City_Deserves.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

In this episode, the gang celebrates its third year of podcasting by discussing two papers that use the fossil record to determine how our current biodiversity crisis stacks up to past mass extinctions. Also, Amanda deals with abandonment, James explore New York, and Curt gives life lessons from 70s film.

"Mr Mealeys Mediocre Machine" Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com) 
Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

References:

Hull, Pincelli M., Simon AF Darroch, and Douglas H. Erwin. "Rarity in mass extinctions and the future of ecosystems." Nature 528.7582 (2015): 345-351.

Plotnick, Roy E., Felisa A. Smith, and S. Kathleen Lyons. "The fossil record of the sixth extinction." Ecology letters (2016).


In this episode the gang talks about Dodo brains and Glyptodont genes. Meanwhile, James makes an unappreciated joke, Curt tries to create an "internet hug", and Amanda learns about The Batman. 

References:

Gold, Maria Eugenia Leone, Estelle Bourdon, and Mark A. Norell. "The first endocast of the extinct dodo (Raphus cucullatus) and an anatomical comparison amongst close relatives (Aves, Columbiformes)." Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society (2016).

Delsuc, Frédéric, et al. "The phylogenetic affinities of the extinct glyptodonts." Current Biology 26.4 (2016): R155-R156.

Direct download: Podcast_79_-_All_the_Cool_Stuff_is_Dead_On_Dodos_and_Glyptodonts.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

The gang discusses three papers that detail some truly unique examples of morphological convergence; from brachiopods that look like corals to bovids with dinosaurian nasal crests. Also, James designs some conspicuous Mario levels,  Amanda wins an argument that "never happened", Curt is excluded from a business venture, and everything comes back to Zardoz.

References:

Streng, Michael, et al. "A new family of Cambrian rhynchonelliformean brachiopods (Order Naukatida) with an aberrant coral‐like morphology."Palaeontology 59.2 (2016): 269-293.

Labandeira, Conrad C., et al. "The evolutionary convergence of mid-Mesozoic lacewings and Cenozoic butterflies." Proc. R. Soc. B. Vol. 283. No. 1824. The Royal Society, 2016.

O’Brien, Haley D., et al. "Unexpected Convergent Evolution of Nasal Domes between Pleistocene Bovids and Cretaceous Hadrosaur Dinosaurs." Current Biology (2016).

Direct download: Podcast_78_-_History_Repeats_Bizarre_Convergence_in_Fossil_Animals.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

In this episode, we discuss the complex relationship between fungi and earth systems processes through time, focusing on the potential role of fungi in facilitating early terrestrialization and the proposed hypothesis that fungi may (or may not) have been indirectly responsible for the Carboniferous coal swamps. Also, Amanda aggressively segues, Curt derails the conversation into navel gazing about the nature of scientific fields, and James goes on a fascinating journey from Angry to Annoyed finally ending up at Resentfully Happy.

"Aces High" Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com) 
Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

References: 

Redecker, Dirk, Robin Kodner, and Linda E. Graham. "Glomalean fungi from the Ordovician." Science 289.5486 (2000): 1920-1921.

Heckman, Daniel S., et al. "Molecular evidence for the early colonization of land by fungi and plants." Science 293.5532 (2001): 1129-1133.

Lücking, Robert, et al. "Fungi evolved right on track." Mycologia 101.6 (2009): 810-822.

Nelsen, Matthew P., et al. "Delayed fungal evolution did not cause the Paleozoic peak in coal production." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2016): 201517943.

 

Direct download: Podcast_77_-_Old_and_Burny_A_Discussion_of_Fossil_Fungi.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

In this episode we discuss a grab bag of Mesozoic papers, ranging from potential dinosaur mating dances to large-eyed mosasaurs. And after a fairly sober month, Amanda and James dive headfirst into the highest alcohol content beer they have with expected disastrous results. Come and join us as Amanda tries her hand at ASMR, James uncovers a plot to destroy him, and Curt enjoys being the most sober person in the room. Also we keep talking about The Thing for some reason...

References

Lockley, Martin G., et al. "Theropod courtship: large scale physical evidence of display arenas and avian-like scrape ceremony behaviour by Cretaceous dinosaurs." Scientific reports 6 (2016).

Konishi, Takuya, et al. "A new halisaurine mosasaur (Squamata: Halisaurinae) from Japan: the first record in the western Pacific realm and the first documented insights into binocular vision in mosasaurs." Journal of Systematic Palaeontology (2015): 1-31.


We ring in the new year by talking about new research on the evolutionary history of early animals. Also, Amanda makes some very deep cartoon cuts, James manages an emergency, and Curt makes impossible resolutions. 

References:

Pisani, Davide, et al. "Genomic data do not support comb jellies as the sister group to all other animals." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112.50 (2015): 15402-15407.

Erwin, Douglas H. "Early metazoan life: divergence, environment and ecology." Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 370.1684 (2015): 20150036.

Direct download: Podcast_75_-_New_Years_Resolutions_and_Sponges_Yall.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

In this episode, we discuss two papers about early tetrapods/tetrapodomorph taxa, Tiktaalik  and Ichthyostega, and what new findings suggest about their locomotion. Also, Curt makes a suspicious delivery, and James desperately tries to feed Amanda "spoilers" for the new Star Wars. EDITOR'S NOTE: While I cannot confirm that any of James's spoilers are indeed accurate, they seem highly unlikely to be true (although if they are true, then the film they suggest is AMAZING).

Up goer five simple text summary:

The group takes time out from a time when not much is meant to happen to talk about some animals with big arms that were some of the first animals with four legs to come on to land. In between talking about a space movie where people use guns that fire light to show how they feel about each other, the group looks at a paper looking at the back end of an animal that had before been known only from its front. This new part of the animal shows that it had very small back legs that still looked more like for use in water. The second paper looks at a well known animal with four legs in a new way for the first time. It uses computers to picture it in a way that you can't picture it with just eyes, and this shows new things about it. The new way of looking shows that the animal would not have been as good at walking on land as people have thought. This is important as there are tracks that show there were animals with four legs that were very good at walking on land around at the same time. The animals that we have found were not able to make these tracks, and so this shows that there were other animals around at the same time that were better at walking on land, and that maybe this group of animals that walked on land started earlier than we thought.

References:

Shubin, Neil H., Edward B. Daeschler, and Farish A. Jenkins. "Pelvic girdle and fin of Tiktaalik roseae." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111.3 (2014): 893-899.

Pierce, Stephanie E., Jennifer A. Clack, and John R. Hutchinson. "Three-dimensional limb joint mobility in the early tetrapod Ichthyostega." Nature486.7404 (2012): 523-526.

Direct download: Podcast_74_-_Early_Tetrapods_Awaken.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

In this episode, we discuss two papers that describe ammonite feeding habits. Meanwhile,  Amanda gets into a boxing match, Curt is introduced to Moon Moon, and James is completely derailed by an animal.... again. Also, James invents a completely ridiculous life strategy  for ammonites (34 :30) that Curt is just drunk enough to truly appreciate. 

Simple text summary

The groups looks at two papers to find out what old animals with many arms and a hard house that they moved about the water in ate. The first paper studies old animals that have been looked at with a computer to see inside them and look at their teeth. The study shows that some of these many armed house carrying animals ate tiny animals that fill the water. The other paper looks at the mouths of other types of animals with arms that carry houses on them and finds that they are very different. This paper shows that several different types of animals with arms that cary houses ate different things, and that the oldest type of eating is still seen today in a living animal with many arms that carries its house around.

References

Kruta, Isabelle, et al. "The role of ammonites in the Mesozoic marine food web revealed by jaw preservation." Science 331.6013 (2011): 70-72.

Tanabe, Kazushige, et al. "The jaw apparatuses of Cretaceous Phylloceratina (Ammonoidea)." Lethaia 46.3 (2013): 399-408.

Direct download: Podcast_73_-_Sincere_Apologies_to_All_Ammonite_Workers.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

Fresh off of GSA, the gang gets together to discuss a quick paper about the extent to which adaptation can overprint historical signal in evolution. Afterwards, James and Curt update Amanda with the highlights of GSA. Meanwhile, Curt explains quarter based economics, James hosts a quiz show, and Amanda is delighted by a paper.

 "Your Call" Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com) 
Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

 References: 

Ord, Terry J., and Thomas C. Summers. "Repeated evolution and the impact of evolutionary history on adaptation." BMC evolutionary biology 15.1 (2015): 137.

Direct download: Podcast_72_-_Converging_on_a_Topic.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

It's that time of year again, so James and Curt bring you day by day coverage of the 2015 Geological Society of America meeting, joined by friends Brendan Anderson and Tory McCoy. So join us for an ethically compromised good time as they discuss the fascinating work of strangers, friends, and themselves.

Day 1: James and Curtis

Day 2: James, Curtis, and Brendan starts at 0:50.40

Day 3: James, Curtis, Brendan, and Tory starts at 2:03.22.

Direct download: Podcast_71_-_GSA_2015.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

The gang discusses two papers that deal with the events that led to the extinction of the early metazoan Ediacaran fauna, as well as the extinction's philosophical ramifications for our understanding of evolution in general. Chaos runs rampant throughout this podcast as our figurative and literal systems break down through time. But somehow, life.... finds a way.... through a 4G network. Meanwhile, Amanda jumps the gun, Curt makes jokes no one can understand, James "wins" again, and everyone slowly succumbs to chaos and madness. If you're just joining us for the first time, I'm so very... very sorry. 

 

References:

Darroch, Simon AF, et al. "Biotic replacement and mass extinction of the Ediacara biota." Proc. R. Soc. B. Vol. 282. No. 1814. The Royal Society, 2015.

Erwin, Douglas H. "Was the Ediacaran–Cambrian radiation a unique evolutionary event?." Paleobiology 41.01 (2015): 1-15.

Direct download: Podcast_70_-_Systems_Breaking_Down_The_End_of_the_Ediacaran.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 2:00am EST

The gang finally just does what comes naturally and discusses two papers about food. Specifically, one paper on why things aren't tasty and another answering the vital question "what foods in the past would be kosher" (the answer might just surprise you). Meanwhile, Amanda finds her spirit animal, James details our terrifying corporate future, and Curt wants to play a game. TRIGGER WARNING: Mild joking reference to sexual-violence and mascots in the first two minutes. TRIGGER WARNING: We talk about eating meat throughout. 

Up-goer five simple-speak text:

The group talks about two papers that look at food and which animals make good food. The first paper looks at the babies of small animals that have pretty things that let them fly. They find out that the babies that ate things with leaves that made bad food also made bad food themselves and would be ignored by other small animals that tried to eat them. The other paper works out whether animals in the past would have been good food for people that have very few things they can eat. The paper uses different ways of telling what things had to show that these people would not be able to eat most things.

 

References:

Dyer, Lee A. "Tasty generalists and nasty specialists? Antipredator mechanisms in tropical lepidopteran larvae." Ecology (1995): 1483-1496.

Plotnick, Roy E., Jessica M. Theodor, and Thomas R. Holtz Jr. "Jurassic Pork: What Could a Jewish Time Traveler Eat?." Evolution: Education and Outreach8.1 (2015): 1-14.

Direct download: Podcast_69_-_Tasty_Kosher_Food.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

The gang discusses two papers about the evolutionary placement of some Cretaceous flowering plants (angiosperms). Meanwhile, Amanda finds her alter ego,  James goes very old school with his jokes, and Curt really doesn't want to talk about the next paper.

 

References

Friis, Else Marie, et al. "Archaefructus–angiosperm precursor or specialized early angiosperm?." Trends in plant science 8.8 (2003): 369-373.

Gomez, Bernard, et al. "Montsechia, an ancient aquatic angiosperm."Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112.35 (2015): 10985-10988.

Direct download: Podcast_68_-_Plonts.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

The gang discusses two papers that detail how the stratigraphic record affects our understanding of the fossil record.  Meanwhile, Amanda gets very enthusiastic, James burns straw men,  and Curt isn't sorry.

 

References

Benton, Michael J. "Palaeodiversity and formation counts: redundancy or bias?." Palaeontology (2015).

Holland, Steven M., and Mark E. Patzkowsky. "The stratigraphy of mass extinction." Palaeontology (2015).

Direct download: Podcast_67_-_Stratigraphic_Bias.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

In this episode the gang tries to have a discussion about the fossil preservation of birds. Instead they get completely sidetracked imagining the penguin apocalypse. Meanwhile, Amanda slowly goes crazy, James keeps hearing things, and Curt delights in a mispronunciation.

 

"Up goer five" text summary

This time the group looks at papers about how animals that have bits that mean they can fly break down when they are dead. The first paper looks at what happens to animals that have bits that mean they can fly when their bodies are left in bad water. These studies are used to see how long animals that could fly were dead before they were covered by stuff in old places where lots of dead things are found in the same place. The study shows that there are fewer types of animals that could fly in these old places where lots of dead things are found in the same place than we would expect. The second paper uses a computer to find out whether we should expect to find all the types of animals that could fly in these old places where lots of dead things are found in the same place. This study shows that we should not expect to find all of the animals that could fly in these old places, but instead that because on the type of old place we should expect to see different types of animals that could fly because of where they lived.

 

References:

Davis, Paul G., and Derek EG Briggs. "The impact of decay and disarticulation on the preservation of fossil birds." Palaios 13.1 (1998): 3-13.

Mitchell, Jonathan S. "Preservation is predictable: quantifying the effect of taphonomic biases on ecological disparity in birds." Paleobiology 41.02 (2015): 353-367.

Direct download: Podcast_66_-_Penguin_Death_Land.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

The gang goes broad and tackles two papers that deal with evidence of sex and reproduction in the fossil record. Meanwhile, Amanda goes method, James invents a new scientific term, and Curt is haunted by one terrible joke that will not die.

"Hyperfun" Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com) 
Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

"Up goer five" text summary

Today the group talks about fucking. Yes, fuck is one of the ten hundred most used words, while better and less bad words for fucking are not. You think what that means about people. Just think about it.

The first paper is looking at the oldest pictures of stuff that comes out of a man after he has had a fuck. This fuck water is from a small animal with no hard parts and so we usually do not know that the animal was there. However, the fuck water is different for different types of small animal, and so we can see what small animals with no hard parts were there without seeing the actual animals. The fuck water has also been ignored for a long time, so we may be able to find more fuck water and find out more about small animals with no hard parts.

The second paper is looking at some of the earliest things that might be animals and their babies. Looking at where the babies are and where the parents are, the paper tries to work out whether these things that might be animals that fucked or whether they just grew babies off of them on sticks. The numbers show that these maybe animals did not fuck, but grew babies on sticks. Other things that might be animals from the same time did fuck, and they are found in many more places. The fact that these maybe animals grew babies on sticks might explain why they are found in only one place while the ones that did fuck are found in lots of places.

References

Bomfleur, Benjamin, et al. "Fossilized spermatozoa preserved in a 50-Myr-old annelid cocoon from Antarctica." Biology letters 11.7 (2015): 20150431.

Mitchell, Emily G., et al. "Reconstructing the reproductive mode of an Ediacaran macro-organism." Nature (2015).

Direct download: Podcast_65_-_SEX.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

The gang discusses two papers about the evolution of quadrupedal lifestyle in ornithischian dinosaurs. Also, James discusses the joys of being a squid, Curt details the ideal political tag-team match,  and Amanda dreams of HD belts.

"Up goer five" text summary

The group talks about big angry animals without hair - again. This time they look at two studies that look at how one group of big angry animals with no hair went from walking on two feet to walking on four. Three different bands of friends in the group have gone back to walking on four feet by themselves. The first paper looks at figuring out the soft parts to work out how they walked and finds that each of these three types of big angry animals without hair walk in different ways, even though they all walk on four feet. The second paper looks at why these three types of animal have gone back to walking on four feet by seeing where they got big and whether it would make them fall forwards or back. This was studied by sticking heavy bits of animals with stuff on them onto animals which did not have stuff on them to see whether it made them fall over. The study shows that the different animal groups went onto four feet for different reasons, and this may explain why the different groups walking on four feet walk in different ways.

References

Maidment, Susannah CR, and Paul M. Barrett. "Does morphological convergence imply functional similarity? A test using the evolution of quadrupedalism in ornithischian dinosaurs." Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 279.1743 (2012): 3765-3771.

Maidment, Susannah CR, Donald M. Henderson, and Paul M. Barrett. "What drove reversions to quadrupedality in ornithischian dinosaurs? Testing hypotheses using centre of mass modelling." Naturwissenschaften 101.11 (2014): 989-1001.

Direct download: Podcast_64_-_Walk_Before_You_Crawl_Convergence_in_Dinosaur_Gait.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

The gang discusses two papers about the evolution (and loss) of hypercarnivory in mammals. Meanwhile, Amanda shares more equine history, Curt does his best to kill a trend, and James goes "nuclear". Please bear with us.... BEAR.

"Batty McFaddin" Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com) 
Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

References

Van Valkenburgh, Blaire, Xiaoming Wang, and John Damuth. "Cope's rule, hypercarnivory, and extinction in North American canids." Science 306.5693 (2004): 101-104.

Figueirido, B., et al. "Shape at the cross‐roads: homoplasy and history in the evolution of the carnivoran skull towards herbivory." Journal of evolutionary biology 23.12 (2010): 2579-2594.

Direct download: Podcast_63_-_Meaty_The_Evolution_of_Hypercarniovry.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

The gang discusses two papers about the effects of the Permian Mass Extinction on the evolutionary and ecological patterns of brachiopods and bivalves. Also, Amanda finds her true calling, James indiscriminately throws shade, and Curt feels the pain of being the only person to vaguely remember what the papers were about.

 'Up goer five' summary:

The group talks about two types of animals with hard parts to hide in, one which is food and one which is not food. It used to be thought that the food animals were better than the not food animals, and that they had beaten them over a long time so that there were more of them today than the not food animal. The first paper shows that this is not true, and that both animals did as well as each other until they both had a very bad day, and that the food animal just got over this very bad day faster. The second paper is making sure that we have not got anything wrong by only looking at one way we can find both the food and not food animals.

 

References:

Gould, Stephen Jay, and C. Bradford Calloway. "Clams and brachiopods-ships that pass in the night." Paleobiology (1980): 383-396.

Clapham, Matthew E. "Ecological consequences of the Guadalupian extinction and its role in the brachiopod-mollusk transition." Paleobiology 41.02 (2015): 266-279.


That gang discusses convergent evolution and potential sexual selection in the horns and frills of ceratopsian dinosaurs, which Amanda refers to as the "most American dinosaur". Also, Amanda defends a cause, James practices being a "tiger mom", and Curt drinks for two with disastrous but expected consequences.

Up-Goer Five podcast summary (using only the ten hundred most commonly used English words):

The group talks about big angry animals with no hair that have things coming out of their faces. There are two groups of big angry animals with no hair that have things coming out of their faces, one with tall things coming off of the neck with smaller things coming out of their faces and another with a short thing coming off of the neck and longer things coming out of their faces. Some studies have looked at what all these things on faces and necks are for, and hurt marks on the hard bits of bodies show that the things were used to fight so that a Mr big angry animal with no hair could find a Mrs big angry animal with no hair. A new finding also shows that after the ones with long things on the necks died out, one of the ones with a short thing on its neck began to look like one of the long thing on the neck ones on its own.

"Wallpaper" Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com) 
Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

 

References:

Farlow, James O., and Peter Dodson. "The behavioral significance of frill and horn morphology in ceratopsian dinosaurs." Evolution (1975): 353-361.

Farke, Andrew A. "Horn use in Triceratops (Dinosauria: Ceratopsidae): testing behavioral hypotheses using scale models." Palaeontologia Electronica 7.1 (2004): 1-10.

Farke, Andrew A., Ewan DS Wolff, and Darren H. Tanke. "Evidence of combat in Triceratops." (2009): e4252.

Brown, Caleb M., and Donald M. Henderson. "A New Horned Dinosaur Reveals Convergent Evolution in Cranial Ornamentation in Ceratopsidae." Current Biology (2015).

Direct download: Podcast_61_-_Frills_and_Horns_Ceratopsian_Convergence.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

In this episode, the gang discuss the diverse and ecologically abundant mammals of the Mesozoic. Meanwhile, Amanda gives dedicated fans an exclusive cat report, James learns something, and Curtis does his best Skeletor impression. However, the greatest question goes unanswered: what are Wombles?

Up-Goer Five podcast summary (using only the ten hundred most commonly used English words):
The group talks about two papers that look at warm blooded animals with hair from a very long time ago, during the time of the big angry animals that did not have hair. While it used to be thought that there were not many different kinds of warm blooded animals with hair a very long time ago, new studies show that there were lots of different kinds of warm blooded animals with hair a long time ago and that they did lots of different things even when there were still big angry animals that did not have hair. It is shown that they changed to do these many different things several different times, and that changes to do these different things have happened alone in different groups that are not families with each other.

References: 

Luo, X-Z. 2007. Transformation and diversification in early mammal evolution. Nature 450: 1011–1019.

Chen, M. & Wilson, GP. 2015. A multivariate approach to infer locomotor modes in Mesozoic mammals. Paleobiology 41: 280–312.

Direct download: Podcast_60_-_Many_Memorable_Mesozoic_Mammals.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

Amanda thinks about a writing style. James takes on a big responsibility. Curt deflects. The nature of change is considered, but the conversation remains locked in stasis.

 

References

Gould, Steven J.. "Is a New and General Theory of Evolution Emerging?" Paleobiology, 6.1 (1980): 119-130.

Hunt, Gene, Melanie J. Hopkins, and Scott Lidgard. "Simple versus complex models of trait evolution and stasis as a response to environmental change."Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112.16 (2015): 4885-4890.

Direct download: Podcast_59_-__Dulce_et_Decorum_est_Pro_Patria_Mori.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

In this episode, the gang discusses changes in biomass through time. They also spend a fair chunk of the podcast passing blame. Meanwhile, James is denied eating a bagel, Curt describes complex biodiversity patterns as “getting swole”, and Amanda apologizes repeatedly. They also try to answer the toughest question of all, would a eurypterid be tasty?

 

References:

Bambach, Richard K. "Seafood through time: changes in biomass, energetics, and productivity in the marine ecosystem." Paleobiology (1993): 372-397.

Cardinale, Bradley J., et al. "Impacts of plant diversity on biomass production increase through time because of species complementarity." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104.46 (2007): 18123-18128.


In this episode, the gang tries desperately to talk about a really interesting plant paper and fails miserably. Meanwhile, James stops caring, Amanda relishes in being right, and Curt really tries to keep this one together (he fails). Also, despite the podcast not being about it at all, James has to talk about the new gliding dinosaur.

 

References:

Stevenson, Robert A., Dennis Evangelista, and Cindy V. Looy. "When conifers took flight: a biomechanical evaluation of an imperfect evolutionary takeoff."Paleobiology 41.02 (2015): 205-225.

Hughes, Martin, Sylvain Gerber, and Matthew Albion Wills. "Clades reach highest morphological disparity early in their evolution." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110.34 (2013): 13875-13879.

Direct download: Podcast_57_-_Imperfect_Wings_Conifers_and_Bat_Dinos.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

 The gang attempts to discuss the Ringo Starr of mass extinctions, the End Triassic. And much like the actual extinction event, the discussion is long, broad, and not focused on any one thing in particular. Meanwhile, Amanda learns the joys of screen sharing, Curt makes some dubious shopping decisions, and James “wins” (play along at home and count how many times James “wins” the podcast).

 

References

Benton, Michael J. "More than one event in the late Triassic mass extinction."Nature 321.6073 (1986): 857-861.

Tanner, L. H., S. G. Lucas, and M. G. Chapman. "Assessing the record and causes of Late Triassic extinctions." Earth-Science Reviews 65.1 (2004): 103-139. 

Kasprak, Alex H., et al. "Episodic photic zone euxinia in the northeastern Panthalassic Ocean during the end-Triassic extinction." Geology 43.4 (2015): 307-310.

Direct download: Podcast_56_-_So_the_End_Triassic_Mass_Extinction.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

In this episode the gang discusses mimicry in the fossil record, which James uses as an excuse to introduce everyone to one of his “favorite” papers.  And as they stare into the gaping maw of mimicry in slack-jawed disbelief, grim smiling lips float back to them flashing pearly teeth in the dark and whispering one word.... mouths.

 

References

http://www.edinburghgeolsoc.org/edingeologist/z_42_08.html

Lamont, A. "Prolegomena to aggressive mimicry and protective resemblance in early fishes, chelicerates, trilobites and brachiopods." Scottish Journal of Science 1.2 (1969): 75-103.

Topper, Timothy P., et al. "Competition and mimicry: the curious case of chaetae in brachiopods from the middle Cambrian Burgess Shale." BMC evolutionary biology 15.1 (2015): 42

Direct download: Podcast_55_-_Mouth_Mimes_Attack.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

The gang attempts to talk about the coral gap, but instead Amanda spends nearly 40 minutes trying to explain why Petoskey Stones are cool, and James tries to sidetrack her at every turn. Meanwhile, Curt is too drunk to care. Our sincerest apologies to all of the coral workers out there.

 

References:

Robinson, George W., and Donald Reed. "Pink Petoskey Stones from Northern Michigan." Rocks & Minerals 88.3 (2013): 244-249.

Stanley, George D. "The evolution of modern corals and their early history."Earth-Science Reviews 60.3 (2003): 195-225.

Stolarski, JarosÅ‚aw, et al. "The ancient evolutionary origins of Scleractinia revealed by azooxanthellate corals." BMC evolutionary biology 11.1 (2011): 316.

Direct download: Podcast_54_-_Mind_the_Coral_Gap.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

The gang celebrates their second birthday podcast by discussing two papers that deal with large evolutionary trends through time in the marine realm. Also, Amanda describes her ideal skull throne, and James and Curt detail their recent pear related experiments.

 

References

Heim, Noel A., et al. "Cope’s rule in the evolution of marine animals." Science347.6224 (2015): 867-870.

Kelley, Neil P., and Ryosuke Motani. "Trophic convergence drives morphological convergence in marine tetrapods." Biology letters 11.1 (2015): 20140709.

Direct download: Podcast_53_-_Sizeable_Convergence.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 4:00am EST

In this episode we revisit the topic of taphonomy by discussing two papers that deal with actualistic taphonomy studies. Also, Amanda butchers potatoes, Curt becomes morbid, and James’s humor gets progressively bluer as the night goes on to the surprise of no one.

 

References

Briggs, Derek EG. "The role of decay and mineralization in the preservation of soft-bodied fossils." Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 31.1 (2003): 275-301.

Bartley, Julie K. "Actualistic taphonomy of cyanobacteria: implications for the Precambrian fossil record." Palaios (1996): 571-586.

Direct download: Podcast_52_-_Taphonomy_Still_a_Process.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

The gang returns to the subject of molecular clocks by discussing several papers that compare the results of molecular clock studies to the fossil evidence. Meanwhile, James tells stories of internet “fame”, Curt loses his composure, and Amanda will be right back.

 

References:

Jarvis, Erich D., et al. "Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds." Science 346.6215 (2014): 1320-1331.

Mayr, Gerald. "The age of the crown group of passerine birds and its evolutionary significance–molecular calibrations versus the fossil record."Systematics and Biodiversity 11.1 (2013): 7-13.

Jeyaprakash, Ayyamperumal, and Marjorie A. Hoy. "First divergence time estimate of spiders, scorpions, mites and ticks (subphylum: Chelicerata) inferred from mitochondrial phylogeny." Experimental and Applied Acarology47.1 (2009): 1-18.

Dunlop, Jason A., and Paul A. Selden. "Calibrating the chelicerate clock: a paleontological reply to Jeyaprakash and Hoy." Experimental and Applied Acarology 48.3 (2009): 183-197.

Direct download: Podcast_51_-_Clock-like_Clocks_Part_2.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

The gang decides to revisit the past by returning to a few previous podcast topics and updating them with current research; starting with a survey of recent research into early vertebrate jaws. And like a snake eating its own tail, the conversation rambles about in circles and accomplishes very little. At the very least they manage to deliver an empathetic discussion of the impostor syndrome, seemingly for no reason. Meanwhile, Curt details teddy bear vivisection, James mixes pseudoephedrine and alcohol, and Amanda learns about the importance of eating before drinking.

 

References

Pradel, Alan, et al. "A Palaeozoic shark with osteichthyan-like branchial arches." Nature (2014).

Giles, Sam, Matt Friedman, and Martin D. Brazeau. "Osteichthyan-like cranial conditions in an Early Devonian stem gnathostome." Nature (2015).

Direct download: Podcast_50_-_Jawesome_2_Jawful.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

After days of indecision about podcast topics, Curt snaps and decides to enact terrible revenge on the others. He holds the gang hostage and slowly tortures them by incessantly prattling on about species concepts and philosophy of science. Trapped in a room with only their snark (and some fresh cooked brisket) to defend themselves, Amanda and James struggle to survive the onslaught of boring. Can they hold out long enough, or will they succumb to the clawing insanity?

Apologies to Iceland, who we woefully misrepresent.

 

Carefree by Kevin Macleod (incompetetch.com)

Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

 

References

Ghiselin, Michael T. "Species Concepts." eLS (1987).

Wiley, Edward O. "The evolutionary species concept reconsidered."Systematic Biology 27.1 (1978): 17-26.

Direct download: Podcast_49_-_Species_3D.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

The gang gins up a flimsy excuse to talk about short-faced bears and megalodon. Also, Amanda researches topics for future podcasts on air, Curt becomes transfixed by Google image searches, and James's mind is broken by the thought of Mr. T. 

References:

Soibelzon, Leopoldo H., et al. "South American giant short-faced bear (Arctotherium angustidens) diet: evidence from pathology, morphology, stable isotopes, and biomechanics." Journal of Paleontology 88.6 (2014): 1240-1250.

Pimiento, Catalina, and Christopher F. Clements. "When Did Carcharocles megalodon Become Extinct? A New Analysis of the Fossil Record." PloS one9.10 (2014): e111086.

Direct download: Podcast_48_-_BearShark.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

In this episode, the gang looks at a few cases of fossil pathologies in arthropods, birds, and amphibians and discusses the interesting broader evolutionary ramifications of these studies. Meanwhile, Amanda wrangles cats, and Curt confuses everyone by consistently assigning taxa to the wrong groups (for example: loriciferans are not priapulids, even though they are closely related). Oh... and  James leads a legitimate discussion on science ethics.

 

References:

Mayr, Gerald. "Bizarre tubercles on the vertebrae of Eocene fossil birds indicate an avian disease without modern counterpart." Naturwissenschaften94.8 (2007): 681-685.

García-Bellido, Diego C., and Desmond H. Collins. "Moulting arthropod caught in the act." Nature 429.6987 (2004): 40-40.

Peel, John S., Martin Stein, and Reinhardt Møbjerg Kristensen. "Life Cycle and Morphology of a Cambrian Stem-Lineage Loriciferan." PloS one 8.8 (2013): e73583.

Fröbisch, Nadia B., Constanze Bickelmann, and Florian Witzmann. "Early evolution of limb regeneration in tetrapods: evidence from a 300-million-year-old amphibian." Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 281.1794 (2014): 20141550

Direct download: Podcast_47_-_A_Merry_Little_Maiming_Pathology_in_the_Fossil_Record.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

After spending 2 hours fighting the internet (drinking the whole time), the gang finally starts recording a bit tipsy and ends the evening fairly wasted. And like an e-mail sent after a long night out at the bars, they record a podcast on properties of higher taxa that they immediately regret in the sobering light of day.

 

References

Humphreys, Aelys M., and Timothy G. Barraclough. "The evolutionary reality of higher taxa in mammals." Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 281.1783 (2014): 20132750.

Paul G. Harnik, Paul C. Fitzgerald, Jonathan L. Payne, and Sandra J. Carlson. “Phylogenetic signal in extinction selectivity in Devonian terebratulide brachiopods.” Paleobiology, 40(4):675-692. (2014)

Direct download: Podcast_46_-_Better_Circles_A_Rambling_Conversation_About_Higher_Taxa.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

The gang stumbles their way through several papers about kangaroos, particularly focusing on a meat eating rat kangaroo. Also, stressed and annoyed at the current internet climate, James and Curt spend most of the podcast relentlessly mocking GamerGate while Amanda decides to ignore them and play with the cat. Also.... texting. 

 

Scientific References

Wroe, Stephen. "Killer kangaroos and other murderous marsupials." Scientific American 280.5 (1999): 68-74.

Wroe, Stephen, Jenni Brammall, and Bernard N. Cooke. "The skull of Ekaltadeta ima (Marsupialia, Hypsiprymnodontidae?): an analysis of some marsupial cranial features and a re-investigation of propleopine phylogeny, with notes on the inference of carnivory in mammals." Journal of Paleontology(1998): 738-751.

Janis, Christine M., Karalyn Buttrill, and Borja Figueirido. "Locomotion in extinct giant kangaroos: were sthenurines hop-less monsters?." PloS one 9.10 (2014): e109888.

 

Summary of the current internet toxicity (Trigger warning, rape and death threats)

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/16/technology/gamergate-women-video-game-threats-anita-sarkeesian.html?_r=0

http://deadspin.com/the-future-of-the-culture-wars-is-here-and-its-gamerga-1646145844

http://jezebel.com/gamergate-trolls-arent-ethics-crusaders-theyre-a-hate-1644984010

and some catharsis  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rr2JPjhtGZA

Direct download: Podcast_45_-_Ethics_in_Kangaroo_Journalism2.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

James, Curt, Liam, Brendan, and Aly discuss talks from the final paleo sessions at GSA 2014, and Brendan makes an impassioned plea to conserve a vital resource.

Direct download: Podcast_44d_-_GSA_2014_Day_4_Its_Magic.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 2:00am EST

Amanda and the cat skype in to see what’s been going on at the Vancouver GSA 2014 meeting. Also, James’s brain is so broken that it makes a pun that doesn’t exist.

Direct download: Podcast_44c_-_GSA_2014_Day_3_Cat_Coda.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

James, Curt, Liam, and Aly join up with biogeochemists Brendan and Charity to discuss some of the GSA 2014 paleontology talks, as well as the difference between a creek and a crick.

Direct download: Podcast_44b_-__GSA_2014_Day_2_Bloodborne_Passages.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

James and Curt are joined by fellow paleontologists Liam and Aly to discuss paleo talks from the first day of the Geological Society of America Meeting 2014 in Vancouver, as well as unusual Swiftian food sources.

Direct download: Podcast_44a_-_sdrawkcaB_seibaB_gnilliK_nataS_GSA_2014.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

The gang discusses the new Spinosaurus material while also trying to completely alienate their audience, starting at jingoistic humor and ending with mass suicide jokes. Meanwhile, Amanda discusses her misgivings about musicals, James compares the other podcast hosts to Peanuts characters, and Curt struggles to understand a perplexing metaphor.

 

References:

Rayfield, EMILY J. "Structural performance of tetanuran theropod skulls, with emphasis on the Megalosauridae, Spinosauridae and Charcharo− dontosauridae." Special Papers in Palaeontology 86 (2011): 241-253.

Ibrahim, Nizar, et al. "Semiaquatic adaptations in a giant predatory dinosaur."Science 345.6204 (2014): 1613-1616.

Direct download: Podcast_43_-_Nontroversy_The_Tale_of_the_Dog-Paddling_Spinosaurus.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

In this episode, the gang concludes their marathon of prerecorded episodes with two papers about the biomechanics of the Terror Birds. We also talk about chukars for pretty much no reason. Also, Curt freaks out about birds, James starts a rumor about Aristotle, and Amanda is assaulted by her cat.

 

References:

Blanco, R. Ernesto, and Washington W. Jones. "Terror birds on the run: a mechanical model to estimate its maximum running speed." Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 272.1574 (2005): 1769-1773.

Degrange, Federico J., et al. "Mechanical analysis of feeding behavior in the extinct “terror bird” Andalgalornis steulleti (Gruiformes: Phorusrhacidae)." PloS one 5.8 (2010): e11856.

Direct download: Podcast_42_-_Terror_Birds_and_Captain_Scarlett.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

In this episode of Palaeo After Dark, the gang discusses the complicated history of Hallucigenia, and somehow gets completely derailed into rambling conversations about Star Trek 5, proper pronunciation, Gould’s “Wonderful Life”, microwave ovens, the effects of aging on your storytelling abilities, natural kinds versus individuals, puppy petting, poor puns, minions, food, Hell and Michael Bolton, LSD, oracles, stilt walkers, emus, otaku cat people, evolutionary convergence, My Little Pony, tripe, confusing a camera with a mouth, rubber bands, contingency, the importance of bricks, improper ways to train your cat/James, choking hazard candies, milk allergies, sharing, and historically important beers. Also, Amanda shares her reconstruction of Hallucigenia in its natural habitat (why it has a shapely pair of human legs, no one can say). If you want to get the point where we actually start talking about science, skip to 19:39 (it’s one of those podcasts).

 

References:

Ramsköld, Lars. "The second leg row of Hallucigenia discovered." Lethaia 25.2 (1992): 221-224.

Hou, Xianguang, and Jan Bergström. "Cambrian lobopodians–ancestors of extant onychophorans?." Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 114.1 (1995): 3-19.

Gould, Stephen Jay. Wonderful life: the Burgess Shale and the nature of history. Random House, 2000.

Smith, Martin R., and Javier Ortega-Hernández. "Hallucigenia/'s onychophoran-like claws and the case for Tactopoda." Nature (2014).

Direct download: Podcast_41_-_Hallucigenia_Eating_Planets_and_Crapping_Rainbows.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

In this episode, the gang spirals into insanity while discussing a strange paper about hippo biogeography. Also, James discusses childhood cartoon trauma, Amanda graduates from beer to vodka, and Curt lowers the bar.

 

References:

Mazza, Paul. "If hippopotamuses cannot swim, how did they colonize islands?." Lethaia (2014).

Geer, Alexandra AE, George Anastasakis, and George A. Lyras. "If hippopotamuses cannot swim, how did they colonize islands: a reply to Mazza." Lethaia (2014).

Direct download: Podcast_40_-_Treading_Water_Lets_Talk_About_Hippos.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

In this episode, the gang discusses two papers that look at the ecology of the early life forms of the Ediacaran period. Also, James discusses the American dream, Curt details the secrets of the podcast's "success", and Amanda is nearly murdered by her cat.

 

References:

Carbone, Calla, and Guy M. Narbonne. "When life got smart: the evolution of behavioral complexity through the Ediacaran and early Cambrian of NW Canada." Journal of Paleontology 88.2 (2014): 309-330.

Cuthill, Jennifer F. Hoyal, and Simon Conway Morris. "Fractal branching organizations of Ediacaran rangeomorph fronds reveal a lost Proterozoic body plan." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2014): 201408542.

Direct download: Podcast_39_-_Fractal_Fronds_Ediacaran_Ecology.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

This week, instead of picking papers with a similar theme the gang decided to talk about the craziest papers they could find. The end result: yetis and airplanes... Maybe this was a mistake.

Meanwhile, James describes his theory of automobile evolution, Amanda discusses swimming polar bears, and Curt describes the life and times of the podcast gang in Tomodachi Life.

 

References:

Sykes, Bryan C., et al. "Genetic analysis of hair samples attributed to yeti, bigfoot and other anomalous primates." Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 281.1789 (2014): 20140161.

Miller, Webb, et al. "Sequencing the nuclear genome of the extinct woolly mammoth." Nature 456.7220 (2008): 387-390.

Barnett, Ross, et al. "Evolution of the extinct Sabretooths and the American cheetah-like cat." Current Biology 15.15 (2005): R589-R590.

Bejan, A., J. D. Charles, and S. Lorente. "The evolution of airplanes." Journal of Applied Physics 116.4 (2014): 044901.

Gould, Stephen Jay. "Entropic homogeneity isn't why no one hits. 400 any more." Discover, August (1986): 60-66.

Direct download: Podcast_38_-_Podcast_Team_VS_The_League_of_Sinister_Papers.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

In this episode of Palaeo After Dark, the gang discusses two papers that use morphometric analysis to test how strongly ecology imprints on evolution, which culminates in Curt drunkenly stumbling his way through hierarchy theory. Also, James and Curt talk about the wonder that is Machete Kills, and Amanda wins an argument only using the word “meh”.

 

References

Mitchell, Jonathan S., and Peter J. Makovicky. "Low ecological disparity in Early Cretaceous birds." Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 281.1787 (2014): 20140608.

Hopkins, Melanie J. "The environmental structure of trilobite morphological disparity." Paleobiology 40.3 (2014): 352-373. 

Eldredge, Niles, and Stanley N. Salthe. "Hierarchy and evolution." Oxford surveys in evolutionary biology 1 (1984): 184-208.

Direct download: Podcast_37_-_Derp_Birds.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

In this week's episode we discuss a paper about using paleobotany to reconstruct paleoclimate, and then spin this discussion into a longer talk about niche conservatism. Meanwhile, Curt violates Godwin's Law by comparing something that is merely horribly unethical with something that is an absolute evil, James gives the Internet and by extension the world an ultimatum, and Amanda confesses to serial herbicide. We also completely mess up our discussion of what stomatal density is used as a proxy for (hint: it’s actually CO2 concentration.... but we apparently forgot that).

 

References:

Utescher, T., et al. "The Coexistence Approach–theoretical background and practical considerations of using plant fossils for climate quantification."Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology (2014).

Crisp, Michael D., et al. "Phylogenetic biome conservatism on a global scale."Nature 458.7239 (2009): 754-756.

Direct download: Podcast_36_-_Some_of_My_Best_Friends_Are_Plants.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

What started as a simple conversation about the Island Rule and small sauropods quickly became a fight for survival as the internet itself rose up to destroy the group. Separated and alone, silenced and cut off by the terrors of this monstrous world wide web, the gang fights to salvage a podcast from the terrible dreck that is, "Horror on Podcast Island 3".

 

THRILL as Curt creates the perfect designer pet. SCREAM when James details his bizarre dreams. And NO ONE WILL BE ADMITTED TO THE THEATER when Amanda destroys all evidence of her involvement with the show.

 

References:

Marpmann, Jean Sebastian, et al. "Cranial anatomy of the Late Jurassic dwarf sauropod Europasaurus holgeri (Dinosauria, Camarasauromorpha): ontogenetic changes and size dimorphism." Journal of Systematic Palaeontology ahead-of-print (2014): 1-43.

Benton, Michael J., et al. "Dinosaurs and the island rule: The dwarfed dinosaurs from HaÅ£eg Island." Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 293.3 (2010): 438-454.

Direct download: Podcast_35_-_Horror_on_Podcast_Island_3_Revenge_of_the_Pocket_Sauropod.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

In this episode, the gang repeatedly violates Godwin's Law by comparing everything to the Nazis/Hitler. And they also discuss two papers which deal with understanding the complicated originations of evolutionary groups. Meanwhile, James discusses his future career options, Amanda willfully mispronounces the plural of LEGO, and Curt explains why he is never funny. Follow along at home kids and see if you can count all of the Nazi jokes (the true answer might surprise you).

 

References: 

Sookias, Roland B., et al. "The monophyly of Euparkeriidae (Reptilia: Archosauriformes) and the origins of Archosauria: a revision of Dorosuchus neoetus from the Mid‐Triassic of Russia." Palaeontology (2014). 

Cartmill, Matt. "Primate origins, human origins, and the end of higher taxa." Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews 21.6 (2012): 208-220.

Direct download: Podcast_34_-_Godwins_Law.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

In this episode, the gang gets vitriolic about people getting vitriolic as they discuss the unexpected drama that ensued after a seemingly benign paper on the phylogenetic position of fossil remoras was published. Furthermore, after angrily pleading for everyone to calm the hell down, Curt then proceeds to spread the hate around. Also, Amanda enjoys a delicious non-kosher ham and James extols the virtues of vegetarianism while eating ham.

Also ham.

 

References:

Britz, Ralf, and G. David Johnson. "Ontogeny and homology of the skeletal elements that form the sucking disc of remoras (Teleostei, Echeneoidei, Echeneidae)." Journal of morphology 273.12 (2012): 1353-1366.

Friedman, Matt, et al. "An early fossil remora (Echeneoidea) reveals the evolutionary assembly of the adhesion disc." Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 280.1766 (2013).

Britz, R., L. Rüber, and G. D. Johnson. "Reinventing the disc: a reminder to give credit to past giants." Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences281.1784 (2014): 20132920.

Friedman, Matt, et al. "On fossils, phylogenies and sequences of evolutionary change." Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 281.1784 (2014): 20140115.

Direct download: Podcast_33_-_Hypocrisy.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

In this very special episode of Palaeo After Dark, the gang wrestles with the controversial topic of fossil commercialization. Furthermore, tragedy strikes when James discusses the butt-hurt level of animals, Curt needlessly segues into Wounded Knee, and Amanda’s injured back is actively ignored. Will the gang be able to survive this meandering discussion, or will their friendships be forever torn apart?

 

References:

Shimada, Kenshu, Currie, Philip J., Scott, Eric, and Sumida, Stuart S. 2014. The greatest challenge to 21st century paleontology:When commercialization of fossils threatens the science. Palaeontologia Electronica Vol. 17, Issue 1; 1E: 4 p; palaeo-electronica.org/content/2014/691-great-threat-in-21st-century

Larson, Peter L. and Russell, Donna. 2014. The benefits of commercial fossil sales to 21st-century paleontology. Palaeontologia Electronica Vol. 17, Issue 1; 2E: 7p; palaeo-electronica.org/content/2014/739-commentary-benefits-of-fossil-sales

Direct download: Podcast_32_-_A_Very_Special_Episode_of_Palaeo_After_Dark.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

In this episode, the gang has a conversation about the various factors affecting total global diversity and how these factors might affect patterns of radiations. Also, Amanda finds a new twitter handle, James drinks a few 11% alcohol beers,  Curt details Winnie the Poo's crack addiction, and the whole podcast is routinely interrupted by random people showing up during the recording. Also, congrats to Dr. James Lamsdell for successfully defending his thesis.

 

References:

Rabosky, Daniel L. "Ecological limits and diversification rate: alternative paradigms to explain the variation in species richness among clades and regions." Ecology Letters 12.8 (2009): 735-743.

Moen, Daniel, and Hélène Morlon. "Why does diversification slow down?."Trends in ecology & evolution 29.4 (2014): 190-197.

Direct download: Podcast_31_-_Filling_the_Bucket.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

In this episode, the gang is all back in the same zip code and celebrate by having a long discussion on the origin and extinction of the large mammals from the Cenozoic known as the Megafauna. Somehow this gets.... weird. Meanwhile, James defends the Star Wars Empire, Curt argues why turtles should be ninjas instead of mere heroes, and Amanda confuses Michael Bay with Roland Emmerich. Also, congrats to Dr. Amanda Falk for defending her thesis. 

 

References:

Anthony D. Barnosky et al. Assessing the Causes of Late Pleistocene Extinctions on the Continents Science 306, 70 (2004);

Tao Deng et al. Out of Tibet: Pliocene Woolly Rhino Suggests High-Plateau Origin of Ice Age Megaherbivores Science 333, 1285 (2011);

 Prescott, Graham W., et al. "Quantitative global analysis of the role of climate and people in explaining late Quaternary megafaunal extinctions." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109.12 (2012): 4527-4531.

Lorenzen, Eline D., et al. "Species-specific responses of Late Quaternary megafauna to climate and humans." Nature 479.7373 (2011): 359-364.

Direct download: Podcast_30_-_Thats_Not_Genocide.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

With thesis defenses on the horizon, the group looks to a comforting and familiar topic to escape their morose nerves; mass extinctions. Specifically, they discuss two papers about patterns of survivorship across mass extinction events and use this as a springboard to talking about general macroevolutionary patterns. Also, James fires Curt, Amanda fires James, and Curt decides to host his own private podcast in the middle of the real podcast with special guest Amanda. SPOILERS for House of Cards in the first 30 seconds of the podcast.

 

References:

Jablonski, David. "Survival without recovery after mass extinctions."Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99.12 (2002): 8139-8144.

Thorne, Philippa M., Marcello Ruta, and Michael J. Benton. "Resetting the evolution of marine reptiles at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108.20 (2011): 8339-8344.

Vrba, Elisabeth S., and Stephen Jay Gould. "The hierarchical expansion of sorting and selection: sorting and selection cannot be equated." Paleobiology(1986): 217-228.

Vrba, Elisabeth S. "Levels of selection and sorting with special reference to the species level." Oxford surveys in evolutionary biology 6 (1989): 111-168. 

Direct download: Podcast_29_-_Everythings_Screwed.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

In this episode, the gang “gives the people what they want” by talking about two papers that look at a giant theropod dinosaur from the Iberian Peninsula. Also, Curt discusses alternate Star Wars history, James requests that everything be cut, and Amanda goes “full dragon”.

 

References:

Cobos et al. / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 399 (2014) 31–41

 

Hendrickx C, Mateus O (2014) Torvosaurus gurneyi n. sp., the Largest Terrestrial Predator from Europe, and a Proposed Terminology of the Maxilla Anatomy in Nonavian Theropods. PLoS ONE 9(3):

 

Direct download: Podcast_28_-_Obligatory_Dinosaur_Podcast.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

In celebration of the podcast’s one year anniversary, the gang decides to discuss two papers about live birth in the fossil record. At least.... that was the plan.... however the second paper proves to be far more problematic than the gang had bargained for. What started off as a simple, breezy pun takes a... darker turn. Isn’t that how all birthdays go, though?

Meanwhile, James discusses the importance of proper breeding in selecting your animal metaphors, Curt tells the apocryphal story of the podcast’s “history”, and the whole gang talks at length about the secret xenomorph invasion during the Triassic. Also, the gang gets a whole new set of microphones and everyone is super excited about them, especially James’ heater which occasionally stops by to say hello.

 

Sound effects used in this episode come from http://www.freesfx.co.uk/

Direct download: Podcast_27_-_Ichthyosaur_Birthday_Party.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 4:00am EST

In this episode, the evil forces of internet lag and food coma conspire to destroy the podcast gang.... and evil pretty much succeeds. However, despite being utterly defeated, the gang still has time to discuss several interesting papers about form and function in evolution, including one recent paper about forams. Also, James talks about disturbing cereal box mascots, Amanda claims to get drunk on only one glass of wine, and see if  you can count how many times Curt leaves to go get a beer (the real answer might surprise you).

Direct download: Podcast_26_-_Lets_Get_This_Over_With_2_Foram_Harder.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

In response to the slightest amount of "success", the gang immediately tries (and fails) to sell out the podcast with James and Curt racing to the bottom in a soulless attempt to cater the show to potential sponsors. They also have a #detailed #discussion on the #famous #Cambrian #arthropod #Anomalocaris.

#pleasedon'tsueus

 

 

#hashtag

Direct download: Podcast_25_-_anomalocarissellouts.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

It seemed like such a good idea at the time. If only we had known that, despite our best intentions, we weren't prepared for the sheer insanity of trying to podcast about the ambiguous Burgess Shale taxon Wiwaxia. The conversation somehow drifts to the Kama Sutra, seething contempt, giant desserts, vomiting, snot, yiffing, spiny koopas and zoomers, and the evil nature of goats. Thankfully, James manages to summarize everything at the end in a way that EVERYONE can understand. 

Brought to you by the letter W.

Direct download: Podcast_24_-_We_never_should_have_podcasted_about_Wiwaxia.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

In this episode, it becomes painfully obvious that James has been escaping the terrible winter rain by playing a bunch of Assassin's Creed: Black Flag since he somehow manages to take a discussion on macroecological patterns of the tropics and turns it into a discussion on pirates. Also, Amanda forgets Billy Mays's name, Curt tortures James by describing scenes from Final Destination and the podcast stops dead when a bunch of cats decide to throw down. All in all, a pretty normal start to a new year.

Direct download: Podcast_23_-_Pirates_and_Vikings.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

When the gang eagerly decides to drink a festive high alcohol content holiday beer while discussing how species are named, the three young scientists are unprepared for the baffling complications that will arise. Join them as they unravel in “The Curse of the 11% Beer” (Palaeo After Dark Gang #22).

Direct download: Podcast_22_-_And_the_Curse_of_the_11_Beer.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

The gang discusses a paper about scientific error and spin that into a larger discussion on error and reproducibility in science in general. Also, Amanda and Curt start the "Canada Appreciation Moment", James discusses the natural human response to snow, and everyone gets super excited as they come up with the plot to the single greatest movie of all time, "The Time Traveler's German". 

Direct download: Podcast_21_-_In_Your_Box.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

In this episode of Palaeo After Dark we discuss Van Valen's Red Queen Hypothesis, as well as recent reviews of the concept. Meanwhile, James  freely partakes in historical revisionism to tell us his fictional accounts of the life of Lewis Carroll, Amanda briefly considers leaving the planet, and Curt finds a joke that is so played out he can't bring himself to say it... so James does!

Direct download: Podcast_20_-_Chasing_the_Red_Queen.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

The gang soldiers on against the horrible vexations of internet lag and losing an hour of recording to discuss a fascinating set of papers looking at fossilized arthropod brains from the Chengjiang. Meanwhile, James invents a new game in the laundry room, Curt discusses nightmares, and Amanda outlines the perfect Nature paper.

Direct download: Podcast_19_-_Lagging_Brains.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

Having fixed the audio problems from the last podcast, the gang reconvenes at the Denver Geological Society of America Meeting to discuss the cool and exciting new research that was presented at the conference. Meanwhile, James talks about Land Before Time, Amanda misses her cat, and we are briefly joined by Palaeocast's own Dave Marshall to have a thrilling discussion about hamburgers.

 

Also, Curt gets drunk... very drunk. 

 

Day 2 starts at 24:32

Day 3 starts at 1:02:13

Direct download: Podcast_18_-_Live_from_GSA.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 4:00am EST

With everyone scattered across the country, the gang attempts to use the mystery box called the internet to still record a podcast...

Things could have gone better.

Audio glitches and echoes abound, but we'll do better next time.... right?

 

Right?

 

Anyways, in this episode James makes puns, Curt drinks weirdly topical beer, and Amanda visits the fictional city of Lost Vegas as we attempt to discuss a really cool paper about placoderm jaws with surprising consequences for our understanding of the evolution of vertebrates as a whole.

 

 

Oh right, and we have a new recording of the intro. Send your complaints to palaeoafterdark@gmail.com

Direct download: Podcast_17_-_Jawsome.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:00am EST

In this episode of Palaeo After Dark, the group talks about an interesting and enigmatic fossil species from the Burgess Shale called Siphusauctum gregarium, which looks somewhat like a crinoid but is possibly completely unrelated. The group also gets sidetracked into conversations about  echinoderms, the importance of the Burgess Shale, and shipping grandfather clocks on the Oregon Trail.

Direct download: Podcast_16_-_TUBE_FEET.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 9:47pm EST

In this episode we discuss a paper about cats, specifically trying to use the shape of bones to estimate the preferred habitat of modern and fossil cats. Meanwhile, Amanda and James discuss Game of Thrones, and Curt is left alone as the entire podcast becomes derailed by an  insect sighting....

 

Things get weird.

Direct download: Podcast_15_-_Game_of_Cats.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 5:00am EST

This episode of Palaeo After Dark is the RAWEST, as we discuss the  controversial primate Darwinius. Also James communicates telepathically, Amanda is constantly bombarded by texts, and Curt gets the "facts".

Direct download: Podcast_14_-_The_.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 11:21pm EST

This week we desperately try to remain on topic as we talk about fossil beds with exceptional preservation....

 

We fail...

 

Instead, James discusses anger, Amanda wants Robocop because she's OG, Curt confuses gaseous with geishas, and the whole goup details the perfect plot to a hypothetical Predator 3.

Direct download: Podcast_13_-_Columbo_meets_Gary_Busey.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:39am EST

In this episode, we discuss two studies that try to piece apart the effects that the ecological niche breadth (i.e. the range of habitats an animal can survive in) of an animal has on its potential to diversify and/or survive over long periods of time. Also, Hell freezes over as James manages to come up with a perfect reference to the band "The Descendents".

Direct download: Podcast_12_-_All_its_Decendents.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 9:00am EST

In this week's episode, we discuss evidence of some early single-cellular life, and James gives the group a passionate lesson in mathematics...

 

A veeeerrrrryyyy passionate lesson.

 

Meanwhile, Randol returns and Amanda joins us from lovely scenic Michigan via the miracles of the internet.

Direct download: Podcast_11_-_Early_Life_is_a_Battlefield.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 9:00am EST

In this episode, while Randol is away Amanda gives the group a lesson in American History, Curt ruins illusions, and James fills the void with his best Randol impressions. Also, after about 18 minutes of random banter they finally get to talking about the bizarre case of  the tyrannosaurid Raptorex, as well as the importance of ontogeny and proper dating. That is... until Amanda falls asleep from jet-lag and exhaustion.

Direct download: Podcast_10_-_Adventures_in_Dating.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 9:00am EST

This week we talk about a controversial worm-like Cambrian fossil called Diania cactiformis that some think may be the ancestor of all arthropods, and other people think those people are crazy.

 

Also SNAAAAAAAAAAAKE!

Direct download: Podcast_9_-_Diania_solid.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 9:00am EST

On this week's episode, we discuss the science of ichnology (the study of trace fossils), and for some reason we can't stop making stupid pop culture references.

Direct download: Podcast_8_-_References.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 1:00am EST

In this episode Amanda writes Freddy Mercury slash fiction, Randol condones eating babies, James feeds the 5000, Curt has a conversation which only involves "meh"'s, and the group kind-of/sort-of discusses ichthyosaurs.

Direct download: Podcast_7_-_Fish_Lizards.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 9:00am EST

In this podcast, Randol invents a cat related song, James reinvents the story of the Ed Fitz, Amanda talks about space ducks, Curt cuts the entire conversation short for chinese food, and the group actually talks science about the evolution of feathers  (despite Amanda's beliefs that some of them aren't feathers).

Direct download: Podcast_6_-_Space_Ducks.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 9:00am EST

Today we are joined by our pal Paula and talk about Pikaia, Pokemon... and poop.

Direct download: Podcast_5_-_Pikaia_Pikaia_Pikaia.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 5:27pm EST

In this week's podcast, Amanda spends the first four minutes talking about shipwrecks, James and Randol discuss their creepy new children's program, and nearly everyone gets distracted when a squirrel runs by the window. We also desperately try to stay on topic as we talk about Evolutionary Faunas.

Direct download: Podcast_4_The_Wreck_of_the_EF.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 6:26pm EST

In this week's podcast we discuss the importance of ontogeny and development in the evolution of new body forms. Also alimony.

Direct download: podcast_3_Growing_Pains.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:15pm EST

This week's podcast we eventually get to talking about Molecular Clock studies dealing with early divergence times and the colonization of land... Also Christopher Lambert

Direct download: Podcast_2_-_Clocklike_Clocks.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 7:16pm EST

In which we eventually get to talking about interpretations of ambiguous fossils, and discuss a redescription of a strange fish.

Direct download: Podcast_1_The_Interpretive_Dance.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 8:32pm EST

Our pilot episode which originally was conceived as a companion piece to Palaeocast. Since this was our first run, we all apologize for the lack of pop filters. Otherwise, enjoy the discussion of taphonomy which begins with burying my corpse in the backyard and only gets weirder from there.

 

If you have any questions, comments, or concerns send them to:

 

palaeoafterdark@gmail.com 

 

Also a sincere shout out to Palaeocast (www.palaeocast.com).

 

Cheers,

Curt

Direct download: Podcast_0_-_Taphonomy_is_a_Process.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 7:58pm EST